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Offline MKrapf

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Homework Chapter 2
« on: January 08, 2010, 08:05:23 am »
Marco Krapf (170897)
January 2010


 .   Last year Aldrin Co. had negative net cash flow, yet its cash on the balance sheet increased.  What could explain these events?

a.   Aldrin issued long-term debt.
b.   Aldrin repurchased some of its common stock.
c.   Aldrin sold some of its assets.
d.   Statements a and b are correct.
e.   Statements a and c are correct.

Correct answer is E (A+C).
Both increase the cash position while purchasing own stocks decreases cash.

 .   Last year, Blanda Brothers had positive net cash flow, yet cash on the balance sheet decreased. Which of the following could explain the company’s financial performance?

a.   The company issued new common stock.
b.   The company issued new long-term debt.
c.   The company sold off some of its assets.
d.   The company purchased a lot of new fixed assets.
e.   The company eliminated its dividend.

Only D is right (all others would increase cash).

 .   Last year, Sewickley Shoes had negative net cash flow; however, cash on its balance sheet increased.  Which of the following could explain this?

a.   The company repurchased some of its common stock.
b.   The company had large depreciation and amortization expenses.
c.   The company issued a large amount of long-term debt.
d.   The company dramatically increased its capital expenditures.
e.   All of the statements above are correct.

C seems to be correct.
B does not affect the cash position in any way and A and D we can rule out because they decrease cash.
 

 .   Which of the following factors could explain why last year Cleaver Energy had negative net cash flow, but the cash on its balance sheet increased?

a.   The company paid a large dividend.
b.   The company had large depreciation and amortization expenses.
c.   The company repurchased common stock.
d.   The company issued new debt.
e.   The company made a large investment in new plant and equipment.

D because issuing new debt increases cash.

 .   Analysts who follow Sierra Nevada Inc. recently noted that, relative to the previous year, the company’s net cash flow was larger but cash on the firm’s balance sheet had declined. What factors could explain these changes?

a.   The company sold a division and received cash in return.
b.   The company cut its dividend.
c.   The company made a large investment in new plant and equipment.
d.   Statements a and b are correct.
e.   Statements b and c are correct.

Answer C is correct, it´s the only one which decreases cash. Furthermore large Dep&Amort increase Net Cash Flow (NCF = Net Income + Dep&Amort)

 .   A stock analyst has acquired the following information for Palmer Products:

•   Retained earnings on the year-end 2001 balance sheet was $700,000.
•   Retained earnings on the year-end 2002 balance sheet was $320,000.
•   The company does not pay dividends.
•   The company’s depreciation expense is its only non-cash expense.
•   The company has no non-cash revenues.
•   The company’s net cash flow for 2002 was $150,000.

On the basis of this information, which of the following statements is most correct?

a.   Palmer Products had negative net income in 2002.
b.   Palmer Products had positive net income in 2002, but it was less than its net income in 2001.
c.   Palmer Products’ depreciation expense in 2002 was less than $150,000.
d.   Palmer Products’ cash on the balance sheet at the end of 2002 must be lower than the cash it had on its balance sheet at the end of 2001.
e.   Palmer Products’ net cash flow in 2002 must be higher than its net cash flow in 2001.

Correct answer: A
By using the formula
Retained Earnings 2002 = Retained Earnings 2001 + Net Income – Dividends paid
(320000 = 700000 + [Net Income] – 0)
And solving the equation we have a negative net income (380000)
 .   Holmes Aircraft recently announced an increase in its net income, yet its net cash flow declined relative to last year.  Which of the following could explain this performance?

a.   The company’s interest expense increased.
b.   The company’s depreciation and amortization expenses declined.
c.   The company’s operating income declined.
d.   All of the statements above are correct.
e.   None of the statements above is correct.

B is the correct answer.
Less Dep&Amort lead both to higher net income and lower net cash flow (NCF = net income + Dep&Amort)

 .   Kramer Corporation recently announced that its net income was lower than last year.  However, analysts estimate that the company’s net cash flow increased.  What factors could explain this discrepancy?

a.   The company’s depreciation and amortization expenses increased.
b.   The company’s interest expense declined.
c.   The company had an increase in its noncash revenues.
d.   Statements a and b are correct.
e.   Statements b and c are correct.

Statement A because higher Dep&Amort lower net income and increase net cash flow (formula see above)

 .   Last year, Owen Technologies reported negative net cash flow and negative free cash flow.  However, its cash on the balance sheet increased.  Which of the following could explain these changes in its cash position?

a.   The company had a sharp increase in its depreciation and amortization expenses.
b.   The company had a sharp increase in its inventories.
c.   The company issued new common stock.
d.   Statements a and b are correct.
e.   Statements a and c are correct.

C. The easiest way to explain is that it´s the only one which increases cash.

 .   Which of the following items is included as part of a company’s current assets?

a.   Accounts payable.
b.   Inventory.
c.   Accounts receivable.
d.   Statements b and c are correct.
e.   All of the statements above are correct.


C is true.
A are liabilities.

 .   Which of the following items can be found on a firm’s balance sheet listed as a current asset?

a.   Accounts receivable.
b.   Depreciation.
c.   Accrued wages.
d.   Statements a and b are correct.
e.   Statements a and c are correct.

A is the right answer.
B is a position on the income statement and C are liabilities.

 .   On its 2001 balance sheet, Sherman Books had retained earnings equal to $510 million.  On its 2002 balance sheet, retained earnings were also equal to $510 million.  Which of the following statements is most correct?

a.   The company must have had net income equal to zero in 2002.
b.   The company did not pay dividends in 2002.
c.   If the company’s net income in 2002 was $200 million, dividends paid must have also equaled $200 million.
d.   If the company lost money in 2002, they must have paid dividends.
e.   None of the statements above is correct.

Most correct is C while A and B can also be true, especially in combination.

 .   Below is the equity portion (in millions) of the year-end balance sheet that Glenn Technology has reported for the last two years:

    2002     2001   
Preferred stock    $   80   $   80
Common stock    2,000   1,000
Retained earnings    2,000    2,340
Total equity   $4,080   $3,420

Glenn does not pay a dividend to its common stockholders. Which of the following statements is most correct?

a.   Glenn issued preferred stock in both 2001 and 2002.
b.   Glenn issued common stock in 2002.
c.   Glenn had positive net income in both 2001 and 2002, but the company’s net income in 2002 was lower than it was in 2001.
d.   Statements b and c are correct.
e.   None of the statements above is correct.

B is correct (they issued new common shares).
C cannot be true because by applying the formula
Retained Earnings 2002 = Retained Earnings 2001 + Net Income 2002 – Dividends paid 2002 (2000 = 2340 + [Net Income] – 0) net income has to be negative (-340)

 .   All else equal, which of the following actions will increase the amount of cash on a company’s balance sheet?

a.   The company issues new common stock.
b.   The company repurchases common stock.
c.   The company pays a dividend.
d.   The company purchases a new piece of equipment.
e.   All of the statements above are correct.

Answer A (all others are uses of cash and therefore decrease this position)

 .   Below are the 2001 and 2002 year-end balance sheets for Kewell Boomerangs:

Assets:       2002         2001   
Cash   $  100,000   $   85,000
Accounts receivable   432,000   350,000
Inventories    1,000,000      700,000
  Total current assets   $1,532,000   $1,135,000
Net fixed assets    3,000,000    2,800,000
Total assets   $4,532,000   $3,935,000

Liabilities and equity:
Accounts payable   $  700,000   $  545,000
Notes payable      800,000      900,000
  Total current liabilities   $1,500,000   $1,445,000
Long-term debt   1,200,000   1,200,000
Common stock   1,500,000   1,000,000
Retained earnings      332,000      290,000
  Total common equity   $1,832,000   $1,290,000
Total liabilities and equity   $4,532,000   $3,935,000

Kewell Boomerangs has never paid a dividend on its common stock.  Kewell issued $1,200,000 of long-term debt in 1997.  This debt was non-callable and is scheduled to mature in 2027.  As of the end of 2002, none of the principal on this debt has been repaid.  Assume that 2001 and 2002 sales were the same in both years.  Which of the following statements is most correct?

a.   Kewell had negative net income in 2002.
b.   Kewell issued new common stock in 2002.
c.   Kewell issued long-term debt in 2002.
d.   Statements a and b are correct.
e.   All of the statements above are correct.

B is correct as you quickly can see at a glance.
A is not true (net income has to be positive because retained earnings increased) and long-term debt is the same as a year before, so C is also false.

 .   Which of the following are likely to occur if Congress passes legislation that forces Carter Manufacturing to depreciate their equipment over a longer time period?

a.   The company’s physical stock of assets would increase.
b.   The company’s reported net income would decline.
c.   The company’s cash position would decline.
d.   All of the statements above are correct.
e.   Statements b and c are correct.

I tend to C. As depreciation is added in the cash flow statement, lower depreciation leads to a lower cash position.

 .   Assume that a company currently depreciates its fixed assets over
7 years.  Which of the following would occur if a tax law change forced the company to depreciate its fixed assets over 10 years instead?

a.   The company’s tax payment would increase.
b.   The company’s cash position would increase.
c.   The company’s net income would increase.
d.   Statements a and c are correct.
e.   Statements b and c are correct.

D is the right answer (i.e. A and C). Lower amount of depreciation leads to a higher net income and therefore to higher tax payments.
 .   Keaton Enterprises is a very profitable company, which recently purchased some equipment.  It plans to depreciate the equipment on a straight-line basis over the next 10 years. Congress, however, is considering a change in the Tax Code that would allow Keaton to depreciate the equipment on a straight-line basis over 5 years instead of 10 years.

   If Congress were to change the law, and Keaton does decide to depreciate the equipment over 5 years, what effect would this change have on the company’s financial statements for the coming year?  (Note that the change in the law would have no effect on the economic or physical value of the equipment.)

a.   The company’s net income would decline.
b.   The company’s net cash flow would decline.
c.   The company’s tax payments would decline.
d.   Statements a and c are correct.
e.   All of the statements above are correct.

D is correct. Higher depreciation leads to a lower net income and therefore to lower tax payments.

 .   Congress recently passed a provision that will enable Piazza Cola to double its depreciation expense for the upcoming year. The new provision will have no effect on the company’s sales revenue. Prior to the new provision, Piazza’s net income was forecasted to be $4 million. The company’s tax rate is 40 percent. Which of the following best describes the impact that this provision will have on Piazza’s financial statements?

a.   The provision will increase the company’s net income.
b.   The provision will reduce the company’s net cash flow.
c.   The provision will increase the company’s tax payments.
d.   All of the statements above are correct.
e.   None of the statements above is correct.

Answer E. None of this will happen.

 .   The Campbell Corporation just purchased an expensive piece of equipment. Originally, the firm was planning on depreciating the equipment over
5 years on a straight-line basis.  However, Congress just passed a provision that will force the company to depreciate its equipment over
7 years on a straight-line basis.  Which of the following will occur as a result of this Congressional action?

a.   Campbell Corporation’s net income for the year will be higher.
b.   Campbell Corporation’s tax liability for the year will be higher.
c.   Campbell Corporation’s net fixed assets on the balance sheet will be higher at the end of the year.
d.   Statements a and b are correct.
e.   All of the statements above are correct.

E, all of the statements are correct.

 .   Armstrong Inc. is a profitable corporation with a 40 percent corporate tax rate. The company is deciding between depreciating the equipment it purchased this year on a straight-line basis over five years or over three years. Changing the depreciation schedule will have no impact on the equipment’s economic value. If Armstrong chooses to depreciate the equipment over three years, which of the following will occur next year, relative to what would have happened, if it had depreciated the equipment over five years?

a.   The company will have a lower net income.
b.   The company will pay less in taxes.
c.   The company will have a lower net cash flow.
d.   Statements a and b are correct.
e.   All of the statements above are correct.

D. Higher depreciation leads to lower net income and less tax payments.

 .   Which of the following statements is most correct?

a.   Accounts receivable show up as current liabilities on the balance sheet.
b.   Dividends paid reduce the net income that is reported on a company’s income statement.
c.   If a company pays more in dividends than it generates in net income, its balance of retained earnings reported on the balance sheet will fall.
d.   Statements a and b are correct.
e.   All of the statements above are correct.

C is correct.
A is not true (accounts receivable are current assets).
B is false because dividends are paid out of net income.

 .   Haskell Motors’ common equity on the balance sheet totals $700 million, and the company has 35 million shares of common stock outstanding. Haskell has significant growth opportunities.  Its headquarters has a book value of $5 million, but its market value is estimated to be $10 million.  Over time, Haskell has issued outstanding debt that has a book value of $10 million and a market value of $5 million.  Which of the following statements is most correct?

a.   Haskell’s book value per share is $20.
b.   Haskell’s market value per share is probably less than $20.
c.   Haskell’s market value per share is probably greater than $20.
d.   Statements a and b are correct.
e.   Statements a and c are correct.

Answer E, that means A (700 mio book value / 35 mio shares = 20) and C (the headquartes is worth more than in book, and debt is worth less than in book).

 .   Analysts who follow Cascade Technology recently noted that, relative to the previous year, the company’s operating income (EBIT) and net income had declined but its operating cash flow had increased. What could explain these changes?

a.   The company’s depreciation and amortization expenses increased.
b.   The company’s interest expense decreased.
c.   The company’s tax rate increased.
d.   Statements a and b are correct.
e.   All of the statements above are correct.

B and C are false: Operating Cash Flow = NOPAT + Dep&Amort. NOPAT is calculated by EBIT * (1-Tax rate). EBIT is BEFORE interest, so interest expenses have no impact. If the tax rate increased the NOPAT would be lower and therefore the OCF would be lower.

 .   Which of the following statements is most correct?

a.   Actions that increase net income will always increase net cash flow.
b.   One way to increase EVA is to maintain the same operating income with less capital.
c.   One drawback of EVA as a performance measure is that it mistakenly assumes that equity capital is free.
d.   Statements a and b are correct.
e.   Statements a and c are correct.

B seems to be reasonable. The formula is as follows: EVA = NOPAT – (After-tax cost of capital * Operating capital), so lower operating capital produces a higher EVA.
A is not correct, NCF does not depend solely on net income.